Chemical industry is just beginning the process associated with the manufacturing process of chemical reaction, then the process of products including industrial raw materials. Chemical industry as the technology advances and the rapid expansion of the market developed, the manufacturing sector now accounts for more than 30%. In Chemical industry Production, from raw materials, intermediates to finished products, mostly with flammable, explosive, toxic and other chemical risks; complex and diverse chemical processes, high temperature, high pressure, cryogenic many factors such as unsafe. Multiple accidents, and the seriousness of the chemical industry's unique characteristics.
Most of the chemical is potentially dangerous nature, that there is a "danger", hazard under certain conditions can develop into a "hidden dangers of accidents," continue to lose control of the potential causes of accidents, then transformed into "event" much more likely. Therefore, the following conclusions can be drawn, namely: risk of loss of control can lead to accidents; risk control and access security. Therefore, identification of hazards has become an important issue. Popular at home and abroad safety assessment technology is based on hazard identification, accident hazards on the existing qualitative and quantitative evaluation and optimization based on evaluation results of the safety measures taken. Improve the safety of chemical production, need to increase equipment reliability, also need to strengthen the security of modern management.
One risk factor for the chemical industry
American Insurance Association (AIA) on the chemical industry, 317 from the fire and explosion accident investigation, analysis of primary and secondary reason for the chemical industry risk factors summarized in the following nine types.
1. Factory site (1) vulnerable to earthquakes, floods, storms natural disasters;
(2) water is not sufficient; (3) the lack of public Fire Facilities support;
(4) with high humidity, temperature and other climate change significantly;
(5) by nearby hazardous impact of large industrial installations;
(6) close to highways, railways, airports and other transportation facilities;
(7) is difficult to put people in a state of emergency vehicles to safely evacuate.
2. Plant layout (1) process equipment and storage equipment is too intensive;
(2) have significant risk and risk-free process safety distance between devices is not enough;
(3) expensive equipment too concentrated; (4) of the device can not replace the absence of effective protection;
(5) boiler, Heaters And other sources of ignition devices and fuel the distance between the small craft;
(6) with terrain obstacles. 3. Structure (1) supports, doors, walls and other structures is not a fire;
(2) Electric Equipment without protective measures;
(3) inadequate capacity explosion-proof ventilation; (4) control and management of the indicating device without protective measures;
(5) plant is weakened. 4. The risk of processing material lack of knowledge.
(1) mixing raw materials in the device, the natural decomposition of the catalyst;
(2) dealing with the gas and dust in the explosion of its range of process conditions is not clear;
(3) did not fully grasp the result of misuse, poorly controlled Er Shi process in an abnormal state of the material and product details.
5. Chemical Technology (1) does not have enough data on the chemical reaction kinetics;
(2) of the dangerous side effects lack of knowledge;
(3) does not determine the explosion energy according to thermodynamics;
(4) detection of process abnormalities is not enough.
6. Material handling (1) various unit operations can not be good for material flow control;
(2) incomplete labeling of products; (3) air delivery device of the dust explosion;
(4) waste gas, waste water treatment and waste;
(5) device for loading and unloading facilities.
7. Misoperation (1) ignoring the operation on the operation and maintenance Education ;
(2) does not give full play to the supervisory role of management;
(3) driving and parking plan is inadequate;
(4) the lack of emergency stop operation training;
(5) not established operators and institutional collaboration between the security personnel.
8. Device Defects (1) caused by improper selection of equipment corrosion, damage;
(2) inadequate equipment, such as the lack of reliable control instrumentation;
(3) material fatigue; (4) of the metal material is not adequate NDT inspection or no inspection by experts;
(5) structural defects, if they can not stop can not regularly check or preventive maintenance;
(6) equipment design limits of technology in more than under the conditions of operation;
(7) of the operating problems or inadequate prevention measures were not improved in time;
(8) is not a continuous record of temperature and pressure, open parking and the intermediate pressure tank and pressure tank change.
9. Disaster plan does not fully
(1) did not receive strong support from management;
(2) the division of responsibilities is not clear;
(3) abnormal operation or failure of equipment only by the security department, only one-way work;
(4) not accident prevention program, or even if there are poor;
(5) In case of emergency did not take effective measures;
(6) not implemented by the management and production sector to carry out regular safety inspections;
(7) is not on the production and technical personnel responsible for safety of continuing education and training necessary for disaster prevention.